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Production Technology of Rose Wines

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Introduction

Rose Wines

Until now the literature for these wines did not make a definition that is accepted and taken up by legislation in wine country or be entered in international regulations. The vine and wine vocabulary is mentioned that rose wine is a wine that has a less intense color and was obtained through a short maceration on skins of red grapes. To the extent that the main criterion for defining rose wines is the color, then these, grosso modo, can be considered as intermediate between white and red wine.

Characteristics of rose wines that close to the White mentioned: fruitful printed by the varietal and fermentation aroma, freshness, supported by a sufficiently high acidity, lightness, due to a moderate degree alcohol. Likeness somewhat with red wines is based on slight astringency, notified by phenolic compounds and color, due to the presence of anthocyanins substances.

As in the case of red and white wines, criteria underlying the optimal timing of harvest are: mass of 100 grapes, sugar and acid concentration, the health of harvest, aromatic potential and rich in polyphenols. To obtain fruitful rose wine with freshness and flavor is preferred as potential alcohol does not exceed 12% vol.

View varieties of: Rose Wine.

Production Technology of Rose Wines
© 2013. Production Technology of Rose Wines
Production Technology

Rose Wines

Harvesting is performed manually or mechanically. In case of wine production by carbonic maceration, which grapes integrity is an essential condition, it is understood that grape harvesting is done manually.

Damaged harvests and especially those affected by gray mold are less or not at all suitable for making rose wines, because grape pressing becomes difficult, wine is sensitive to oxidation, clarify difficult and the resulting wine have smells and tastes unpleasant (fenician acid). Areas and warm autumns harvesting is preferred that take place in the morning when the temperature is slightly lower (below 20°C) than during the day. Doing so actions the microbiological and biochemical reactions are slowed down and gain of frigories, due to a morning picking is great repercussions on the fermentation temperature.

Sulphitation of grapes, in order to provide antioxidant protection is unnecessary especially when they are healthy and were harvested manually.

Depending on the variety and health, grape processing can be performed either by white vinification technique or technology as red winewith the specification that maceration is very short lived. Very rarely is get roses wines through carbonic maceration.

In the first case, after crushing, separate grapes trusses, and the addition of pectolytic enzyme, harvest is pressed quickly, but spared. Assemblage fractions from ravac grape pressing, the most convenient proportions is based on organoleptic examination prior.

In winemaking by maceration, it's need be careful as not accompanied by fermentation. It must be performed within the shortest possible time (several hours) to facilitate passage only partially anthocyanins, and not tanning substances. Sometimes it is sufficient that only some of the must to remain in a place with grape pomace. In this case the duration of contact between the two phases is relatively short (2-18 hours), depending on the variety, temperature harvest, ripeness of the grapes, the color intended to be printed to wine, etc.

Carbonic maceration (35°C for 36 hours or 25°C for 48 hours, as expected French) is less recommended, because it leads to the realization of wines too intensely colored. Can benefit from this procedure only if the resulting wines are assembled with those obtained by the first version (without maceration) and less with those obtained by the second (with maceration).

Sulphitation of must, with doses of 4-5 g / hl, is done to protect against oxidation to inactivate indigenous microflora and to facilitate settling.

Settling is done to decrease slurry wort to an optimal ranging between 100-200 UTN (Nephelometric Turbidity Units). To values below than 100, fermentation takes place with difficulty, and to more than 200, you may experience an unpleasant taste, heavy.

Addition of pectolytic enzymes in settling, in doses of 1-2 g / hl, causes a faster sedimentation of slurry particles and a clearer separation between the grape must and tailing. Added enzymes also contribute to better harness the potential of aromatic variety, while favoring initiation and development of alcoholic fermentation under optimal conditions.

Adding bentonite is applied after treatment with enzymes and more in order to facilitate sedimentation and not deproteinization, who prefer to make wine stage. When grape must comes from grapes touched by gray mold, it is recommended that when bentonite is added to the must, to add a certain quantity of casein (previously established by testing), that annihilates oxidative enzyme activities without visible decrease the intensity of coloring.

Sulphited grape maceration (4-5 g / hl SO2) for 5-7 days at 10.5°C, without starting the fermentation, favoring the release of free and related odorous substances from skins, finally leading to a highlight better and more complex of varietal flavor.

Must grapes results by filtering of tailing, with interesting aromatic potential, it is good to be mixed with the settled juice that, having a higher turbidity, "rebalance" the mixture.

Fermentation must is done in containers (drums, barrels, tanks), just like the grape for white wines, ensuring an 'fermentation of empty' corresponding to container size.

Addition of selected yeasts, as maya or lyophilised yeast ensures initiation and deployment alcoholic fermentation at time and in optimal conditions. Indigenous yeasts can also ensure good fermentation, but there are cases when due to an early period too long, some wild yeast favors growth of volatile acidity and the emergence even less pleasant taste. For these reasons and for better security it is recommended fermenting with selected yeasts and especially with the lyophilized yeasts. The latter is preserved very well (at temperatures of about 4°C losses per year does not exceed 5-10%), their use is very convenient and has the advantage that quickly put possession on environment.

Fermentation temperature is recommended to be situated between 15 and 20°C. At such a temperature daily consumption of must sugar is about 20 g / l.

Realization of malolactic fermentation is desirable only when wine is too acidic. Generally, however, it is not preferred because it results in a decrease in freshness, fruitful and flavor wine, and sometimes occurrence of smells and tastes lactic, less pleasant.

Care works of rose wines (separation from yeast, equalization, sulphitation, demetallising, tartaric stabilization) are the same as those that apply to white wines, specifying that their execution should be done with extra careful to not cause a decrease intensity of coloring.

Keeping in cask duration is relatively short, less than one year, during which the temperature should not exceed 10 to 12°C. Storage at a higher temperature and longer duration could cause degradation varietal aromas primary and secondary fermentation, deemed essential for a high quality pink wine.

 

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