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Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus

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» wheat diseases, triticum sp.

Introduction

Triticum sp.

In nature, in besides wheat, virus can infect barley, oats, rye, corn and wild gramineae.

View Plant Profile of: Triticum sp.

Symptoms

Triticum sp.

The first symptoms appear on wheat autumn after 2 - 3 weeks after emergence. The diseased plant leaves present lines or streaks of light green or yellowish along the limb, discontinuous, parallel ribs. In a later stage, the whole area of limb becomes yellowish.
Diseased plants are characterized by lower growth and reduced capacity twinning plants are dwarf, straw is shortened by 20 - 30%, the wheatears are small and sterile in most cases. This reduction is accentuated in infected plants autumn compared to the spring infected.
Low temperatures during autumn mask leaf symptoms. They reappear in the spring, after starting vegetation, in the form of grooves that increase, unite and occupy large portions of the limb. Often can be seen necrotic on attacked tissue. In a more advanced stage of the disease, leaves have golden yellow color, only some portions of tissue remain green. Caryopsis when forming are low efficiency in grinding and flour have low absorption.

Pathogen

Triticum sp.

The disease is caused by Marmor virgatum Mc. Kinney. Is a filamentous virus, flexible-rigid 15 - 700 μm. Inactivation temperature is 52 - 54°C and limit dilution is 1:1000 and 1: 1500. Resist in juice 4 days at 20°C and 20 days at 30°C.

In nature is transmitted by mites: Aceria tritici, A. tulipae. As permanent sources of infection are host weeds eg. Lolium multiflorum. But in annual cycle of the virus, an important role is returns to winter wheat and which is spring after shaking cereals, because they shelter disease vectors.

The virus is not transmitted through soil or seed, spend the winter together with vector in winter cereals and perennial gramineae.

Environmental factors can influence the propagation and spread of the virus and vectors, which are sensitive to dryness.

Resistance of wheat varieties differ from infections with Marmor virgatum. Triticum durum varieties are very sensitive as those of Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare.

Life Cycle

Triticum sp.

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Prevention and Control

Triticum sp.

The main a measure to prevent is respect sown period because it was observed that infection with this virus decreases with delayed sowing. However it is recommended early spring sowing wheat, so that plants to grow up during the spread of disease. It requires destruction of plants which is spring after shaking cereals and host weeds, destruction vectors and cultivation of varieties less affected by this virus.

 

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