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Biological Peculiarities of Rye

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» morphology, secale cereale

Introduction

Secale cereale

Rye germinates minimum temperature of 1-2°C, the optimum of about 25°C and maximum 30°C. For germination takes about 50% water reported to eat grain. Water absorption rate, namely the germination is temperature dependent.

View Plant Profile of: Secale cereale

About Rye

Secale cereale

Embryonic roots are in number 4 (but sometimes reach up to 6). Crown roots arise from the stem nodes [ 1 ]. Rye form a well-developed root system and high solubilization capacity. About 60% of the roots are located up to 25 cm in the soil, but they reach and 150 cm, and on sandy soils get over 200 cm. The large volume of the root system and high strength solvent and absorption (beyond wheat, barley etc.), explains the requirements rye low relation to the ground.

At emergence first leaf is protected by coleoptil, which is 3 to 6 cm long and reddish-purple color.
Twinning starts at about 8-10 days after emergence. Factors that influence twinning rye are those listed in the general characteristics of grain (and grain). Twinning node is formed closer to the surface. Fall rye Infratest more, making brothers have a uniform increase spring.

Stem has 5-6 internodes and height to cultivated forms, is between 120 - 180 cm. Rye straw is growing faster than the wheat or oats, so rye use better the water supply from snow and suppress weeds easier than this.

The leaves have reddish-purple color young stage, then anthocyanins disappear and become green and blue. Ears and ligula are of medium size and hairless. Limb leaf is higher than wheat (15 to 20 cm long and 0.8 -1.0 cm wide). At earing 1-3 leaves are green and the bottom is dry.

Rye inflorescence is a spike with 10-35 spikelets (one on one heel of rachis); normally, each spikelet has 2-3 flowers of which 2 fertile flowers, but there biotypes with 3 or 4 flowers in spikelet. The glume are narrow form of needle, streamlined and completed with an extension ‘arista-form’. External blade (bottom) is streamlined and finished with ‘arista’ (1-3 cm).
Spike appear to about 40 to 50 days from the vegetation in the spring. Earing rye occurs in 10 - 15 days before wheat.
Rye flowering occurs in 5 to 7 days after earing, when the air temperature is 12 - 14°C, so it happens usually in the morning hours. The flowers open gradually, starting in the middle ear. A flower is blooming during 12 to 25 minutes, and at low temperatures (8-10°C) reaching 35 to 40 minutes, flowering takes 3-4 days for an ear and 8 to 14 days for a plant (with 3 - four brothers).
At flowering anthers get out soon from flower due elongation of stamens filament, which favors cross pollination.

Pollination is alogam, anemophilous, the cultivated forms are self-sterile flowers. The pollen is carried by the wind up to 300 - 500 m, so to preserve the purity of a variety must be ensured adequate space of isolation (over l .000 m). Fruit of the rye is naked with different levels of coverage on ‘pleven’, greenish to yellowish (in the latter case, flour is more white), different forms and with MMB 30-40 g, where varieties reaching to 50 g [ 2 ].

 

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