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Establishment Rice Crop - Seed and Sowing

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» seed and sowing, oryza sp.

Seed

Oryza sp.

Seed intended for sowing should contain only whole grains, shell, with at least 98% physical purity, germination least 80% and the most higher germination energy.

Before sowing is required seed treatment, using lindane + thiuram + metiltiofanat (Tirametox 90 PTS, 3 kg / t of seed) lindane + carboxină (Vitalin 85 PTS, 3 kg / t seed) against pests that attack at the beginning of vegetation and diseases (bacterial burning or "Bruson").

View Plant Profile of: Oryza sp.

Sowing

Oryza sp.

Rice can be sown in water layer or dry (field prepared as for any cereals).

Water seeding is the most extensive in the world (about 70% of the total area under rice in the world). This method has a number of advantages: it wins 10-15 days during the growing season because it uses pre-germination and can sow earlier; the method can be applied on salinized land, to ensure good conditions for planting on heavy soils as well as in situations where it can not be very well prepared seedbed (as required by sowing "in dry"); permits the use of herbicides molinate (Ordram), very volatile and must be incorporated into the soil and flooded land immediately after application.

To sowing, the seed is taken usually in humidified 24 to 28 hours to sprouting ("scoring") and then easily aired. Sowing is done by spreading terrestrial means (tractor fitted with wheels with spurs or lattices and fertilizer spreaders) or "Avio". It is important to share (spread) the most as uniform seed, before sowing is carried disorder of water, after sowing, over seeds should be filed a layer of mud (silt) of about 0.5 cm thick.

Sowing "in dry" can make also by the scattering, using machinery that used chemical fertilizers or seeders universal, without incorporation (no coulters). Previously land can be modeled by shallow gullies trace. Eventually, after sowing can be made a work of roller to annular roller to prevent seed to be moved by water flooding, spreading seeds can be and means "avio". Well prepared land can be resemble with universal seed drill, at a depth of about 2 cm, using skates provided with depth stop.

The recommended density is higher than other cereals, namely 900-1000 germinable grain / m2 because of less favorable conditions during sowing, germination, emergence, aiming to achieve 250-350 plants/m2 or 400-600 harvest panicle / m2. To achieve these densities should be used between 250 and 300 kg seed / ha.

The rice is sown when the soil temperature reaches 10 to 12°C (15°C water temperature), which corresponds to the period April 20 to May 5. Late sowing is very harmful, because it delays the vegetation in autumn, with all the consequences of maturing, harvesting, production levels etc.

 

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