Chemical Composition of Maize Grain


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Zea mays L.

By R. J. Martin et al. (1970), seeds contain on average: water 13.5%, protein 10.0%, glucides 70.7% (of which starch 61.0%), fat 4.0%, minerals 1.4%, substance organic acid 0.4%.

The chemical composition is greatly influenced by hybrid (variety), vegetation conditions and applied technology.

View Plant Profile of: Zea mays L.

Chemical Composition

Zea mays L.

Starch consists of amylopectin (72-77%) and amylose (21-28%). Distribution of starch in grain components reveals that 98% is deposited in the endosperm, embryo 1.3% and 0.7% in pericarp.

Proteins, in proportion of 15 to 18%, contain 45% prolamins (predominant is zeina) 35% glutenin and 20% globulin. 73.1% accumulates in the endosperm of total protein, 23.0% in embryo and 2.2% in pericarp.

Rational fertilization influences aminoacid content. Therefore, nitrogen fertilizers raises tryptophan content, and the nitrogen and phosphorus lead to an increase in lysine content [ 1 ].

Iodine index of maize oil is 111-130. The oil composition enters: 46% oleic acid, 41.5% linoleic acid, 7.8% palmitic acid, 3.5% stearic acid and others.

Grains contain vitamins B1, B2, and E in greater proportion, provitamin A (yellow grain varieties), vitamin C is missing.


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