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Requirements for Ecological Factors of Barley

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» wheat diseases, hordeum vulgare

Introduction

Hordeum vulgare L.

Barley has a great area of dispersal, Arctic areas (4-row barley) to the equatorial zone - arid (6-row barley) and some forms succeed at very high altitudes (var. coeleste).
Barley has many cultivated forms, adapted to different climatic conditions. Barley manages well in temperate and humid areas.
Like latitude, cultivated barley exceeds the limit of polar circle (up to 70 degrees latitude), and like altitude occurs in the culture at 1,900 m in the Alps, at 2,700 m in Caucasus and up to 4,700 m in Tibet.

View Plant Profile of: Hordeum vulgare L.

Climatic Requirements

Hordeum vulgare L.

Climatic requirements of barley are, generally, lower than for wheat, but these requirements are dependent on cultivated form. Barley is more resistant at high temperature than wheat, rye and oats.
Spring barley (fodder) with short vegetation period, succeeds in the harsh climates or dry. Amount degrees it on during the vegetation period is 1200 - 1800°C.
Barley (Hordeum distichon), to achieve the required quality manufacture of beer, is grown in cool, moist areas where grain protein content is lower, by prolonging the period to deposit starch. Amount degrees for barley is 1000 - 1300°C.
Winter barley is more sensitive to wintering than wheat or autumn rye, resisting up to -15°C in the twinning node (if has passed the hardening process). Under snow cover barley hardened and well rooted supports temperatures of -28°C, (even -30°C). Winter barley is sensitive to frost, if not "hardened" in good condition. Large losses occur in winter barley, when the frosts occurring "windows winter" or the frosts came after the vegetation in early spring. Amount degrees in winter barley is 1700 - 2100°C.

Water Requirements

Hordeum vulgare L.

Generally, barley has reduced requirements from humidity, perspiration coefficient with 300-400, but there are large differences between the forms of culture, as shown above. Critical periods towards water is formation phases straw to earing, when go through the stages of organogenesis (similar requirements of wheat).
With shorter during the vegetation period, barley avoid drought adulthood before the summer droughts. So barley get away from shriveled than wheat. If drought occurs earlier, barley suffer more than wheat, with less developed root system and more to the surface (being exposed to drying soil).

Soil Requirements

Hordeum vulgare L.

Requirements from the soil. Barley is more pretentious than wheat, with root system with low absorption capacity and shorter vegetation period. Barley "doing well" on soils with medium texture, permeable, pH -6.5 to 7.5 and fertile. Suitable for barley are chernozems and alluvial soils solidified.
Barley (Hordeum distichon) is generally pretentious from soil than barley (Hordeum vulgare). It can grow within the pH 5.0 to 7.5. Spring barley is grown in the area of brown forest soils.
It was found that barley has a relatively good tolerance during germination in a specific soil salinity [ 1 ]. Barley are contraindicated for salty soils and to much light (sandy) or heavy (clay) soils.

 

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